The high rainfall zone is a new and expanding environment for cropping, but studies indicate that crops in this zone are performing well below potential based on available sunlight, water and temperature. Historical information from Australia and overseas, together with some of the newest breeding material from the UK and Europe is being used to find answers to improve profitability and adaptation of high rainfall croppers. The crop design tool is using historical climate and established physiological principles from high and lower rainfall cropping zones in Australia and overseas to identify crop characteristics suited specifically to the high rainfall zone of southern Australia and fast track breeding programs. Not only does it have potential to design crops for new environments such as the high rainfall zones but also for changing environments as may occur under climate change. Department of Primary Industries scientists are combining history and the latest breeding material from around the world to unlock the secrets to growing crops in high rainfall areas. Cropping in the high rainfall zone is increasing due to drier climates and climate change.
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Crop growth and yield are strongly affected by sunlight, temperature and growing season precipitation. The availability of water is often a limitation to crop production on the southern Prairies. In other regions, excess moisture limits successful production. Other environmental factors, such as cool spring soil temperatures, slow down seed germination and emergence.
In some years, late spring frost affects seedling growth or early fall frost affects crop yield and grain quality. But solar radiation is also a key factor in crop production. The more we understand the relationships between our crops and our climate, the better we can plan and design stronger cropping practices.
Solar radiation Solar radiation is essential for plant growth. Plant leaves absorb sunlight and use it as the energy source for photosynthesis. The ability of a crop to collect sunlight is a function of leaf surface area or leaf area index. When a crop is at full canopy, its ability to collect sunlight is maximized. Agronomic factors such as weed competition, insect feeding or leaf diseases can reduce leaf surface area and interfere with sunlight capture by crops.
In theory, as the amount of captured radiation energy increases, crop production will also increase. When plant leaves absorb the energy of the sun for photosynthesis, the temperature of the leaf surface increases. Plants respond by releasing water through the stomata to cool the leaf surface. Plant leaves take up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and water is taken up by plant roots.
Sunlight provides the energy plants need to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and oxygen. The carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis are used for vegetative and reproductive growth and to increase crop biomass. Because solar energy is needed for photosynthesis, it only occurs during daylight.
The amount of solar radiation reaching a crop is affected by the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere. Clouds reduce solar radiation by reflecting it back into outer space, preventing it from reaching crops. In the future, as the concentration of greenhouse gases increase in the atmosphere, there will be a gradual reduction in cloudiness, which will promote further global warming.
Farmers can increase the potential of their crops to capture solar radiation by seeding as early as is reasonable each spring. For example, wheat seeded on May 3 will have seven weeks where the days are getting longer, versus wheat seeded on May 30, when the days get longer for only three weeks before growing shorter again.
Generally, seeding earlier can give crops a yield advantage. Soil moisture and crop water use The amount of water taken up and used by a crop is affected by a number of factors, including crop growth stages, crop rooting depths, availability of soil water, precipitation amounts during the growing season and environmental factors including the amount of solar radiation, humidity, temperature and wind.
Crop water use is the amount of water used by a crop for growth and cooling. Crop water use can be determined on a daily, weekly or growing season basis. Crop water use is referred to as evapotranspiration ET. ET is the combination of water evaporation from soil and plant surfaces and water used by plants for growth and transpiration. Plants release water vapour through the stomata, cooling the leaf surface to minimize heat stress. Evaporation is usually only significant when the soil surface is moist or when the crop canopy is wet, after precipitation.
After the top two to six centimetres cm of surface soil have dried, evaporation of water from soil is usually minimal. Evaporation from the soil surface is also reduced as the crop canopy closes to completely shade the soil surface.
At full crop canopy, almost all the ET is from transpiration by the crop. The maximum ET rate occurs when soil water is not a limiting factor. Transpiration of water from the stomata, followed by evaporation from the leaf surface, maintains a cooler leaf temperature than the surrounding air temperature.
Stomata have guard cells that regulate transpiration water loss by opening or closing the stomata entrance. When the stomata are fully open, transpiration is at its maximum to keep leaf surfaces cool. When plants are under water stress, the stomata partially close to reduce transpiration.
Humidity, which is a measure of how much water vapour is in the air, also plays a role in transpiration. The transpiration rate of a crop is higher when air humidity is low. Often there is a still air layer adjacent to the leaf surface in a crop canopy.
This still air layer affects cooling from the leaf to the atmosphere. The thicker the still air layer, the lower the transpiration water loss from plants. Wind will disturb the thickness of the layer; as wind speed increases, the still air layer decreases, which in turn increases the transpiration rate from leaves to the moving air.
Crops use their root systems to extract water from the soil. The rate and amount of water taken up by a crop is affected by the soil water content, stage of plant growth and effective rooting depth. Figures 1 to 4 show examples of crop water use for wheat, barley, canola and pea, when soil moisture is not limiting. For annual crops, a certain amount of moisture is needed to initiate germination and take the crop through the vegetative and reproductive growth stages to a point where seed can be produced.
For wheat, barley and canola, at least millimetres mm or four inches and often closer to mm or five inches of water is needed to get a crop from germination to the reproductive growth stage. The amount of moisture needed varies, as crops do not need as much moisture for transpiration on a cool day as they do on a warm day.
Cereal crops at the tillering stage use approximately two to three mm of water per day; at the stem elongation stage, they need about three to five mm of water per day.
When temperatures are above 25 C, the moisture needed is about five mm per day. On warm days at the stem elongation growth stage, a cereal crop will use about 20 to 35 mm of water in one week, depending on environmental conditions. When cereal crops are at the heading stage, water use is seven to eight mm per day under ideal conditions.
This means peak water use is substantial from mid-June to late July or early August. If moisture is lacking, crops cannot keep up with water use and significant yield reduction can occur. Once a crop shifts from vegetative to reproductive growth, water use remains high. Under optimum growth conditions, cereal crops after heading and canola at the flowering growth stage will continue to use seven to eight mm of water per day until seed filling.
As grain filling nears completion, crop water use declines, dropping off rapidly as plants approach maturity. When crops cannot take up sufficient water from soil to meet crop water use, a deficit occurs.
To avoid dehydration, C3 crops close their stomata, leading to a decrease in photosynthetic activity. As the water deficit increases and photosynthesis decreases, crop yield potential also decreases. C3 plants are the most efficient at photosynthesis and are the most common, consisting of most temperate crops, wheat, beans, potatoes and trees. Drought occurs when a severe lack of soil water and precipitation occurs, resulting in a drastic reduction in crop yield.
Droughts are usually considered severe when crop yields are reduced by at least 50 per cent below long-term average yield. Severe drought usually occurs as a result of both higher than normal temperature and lower than normal precipitation. Temperature All crops have minimum, optimum and maximum temperatures at which growth processes are affected, called cardinal temperatures.
For example, minimum temperatures are needed for plant processes such as germination, vegetative growth, root growth, water uptake, photosynthesis, respiration, flowering and for seed development to take place. Temperatures below the minimum will stop plant processes.
At optimum temperature, plant processes proceed at an optimum rate and above a maximum temperature, plant processes stop. Heat stress and water stress commonly occur in the southern Prairies, however they also occur periodically across all agricultural regions. They can occur separately or simultaneously.
Water stressed plants do not have adequate soil moisture to meet transpiration needs, causing stomata to close, which, in turn, results in an increase in plant temperature. The upper temperature for heat stress varies with crop type and growth stage development. For wheat, the typical optimum temperature range for photosynthesis is between 15 and 30 C. Heat stress increases when temperatures are between 30 and 40 C; above 40 C, the photosynthetic processes can permanently break down.
High temperature can affect various growth stages. For example, yield of wheat is impacted when high temperatures occur five to 10 days before anthesis, when pollen is formed and viability can be seriously affected.
Low temperature or chilling stress can occur when plants are exposed to a low temperature above 0 C. Freezing stress occurs when plants are exposed to a low temperature below 0 C and can seriously affect crop growth and yield. Plants that have experienced periods of low temperatures before a frost are able to tolerate lower temperatures than those without a hardening off period.
For example, wheat and canola at the seedling stage that have been hardened to low temperatures can often survive temperatures down to — 6 C. The more we understand about the relationships between our crops and our variable weather and climate, the better we can plan and design more sustainable cropping practices. We need to consider all agronomy disciplines, such as crop types that can be grown, and management of fertilizers, weeds, insects and diseases, which are also affected by variable weather factors.
Then crop production practices can be gradually adapted to minimize the negative effects of weather extremes. In the future, with advances in crop breeding, improved agronomic practices and better long-term weather forecasts, crop production can be successful over a wider range of variable temperatures and water availabilities. Your email address will not be published. Exact matches only. Search in title. Search in content.
Search in excerpt. McKenzie PhD P. November 22, By Ross H. Sunlight Crop growth and yield are strongly affected by sunlight. Print this page Tweet. Understanding water holding capacities of soil. Understanding temperature inversions to avoid spray drift.
Agricultural management and productivity are very closely related to the climate, with any climatic changes potentially resulting in both risks and opportunities for farming. For example, warmer temperatures will result in:. Climate is also one of the key constraints with regard to land use. In areas where the limiting factor is related to soil moisture, climate change could result in a shift from land that is capable only of providing rough grazing to land that could be potentially improved, along with a significant expansion in prime agricultural land in eastern and southern Scotland.
implications for crop growth as crops have specific temperature and rainfall requirements during the different growth phases.
Climate is the most important dominating factor influencing the suitability of a crop to a particular region. The yield potential of the crop mainly depends on climate. More than 50 per cent of variation of crops is determined by climate. The most important climatic factors that influence growth, development and yield of crops are solar radiation, temperature and rainfall. All plants have maximum, optimum and minimum temperature limits. The limits are cardinal temperature points. Optimum temperature range is very important. Low temperature affects several aspects of crop growth viz.
Weather is something we all care about. Not only do we are hope for warm, sunny weather so that we can swim, enjoy nature, or operate important farm activities but sometimes we wish for the rain to simply water the plants or dance with an umbrella on the wet street. However, unlike other industries, the weather is the most important element that affects farm production. It can influence crop growth, total yield, pest occurrence, water and fertilizer need, and all farm activities carried out during the growing season. In other words, farming under the open sky is greatly reliant upon the weathe r and is subject to its moody conditions, especially nowadays, when climate change leads to unpredictable weather which is beyond human control.
Arunachal Pradesh attained its statehood on 20th February
Wheat is the main cereal crop in India. The total area under the crop is aboutThe production of wheat in the country has increased significantly fromThe major increase in the productivity of wheat has been observed in the states of Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. Higher area coverage is reported from MP in recent years.
Jowar, Bajra and Ragi are the important millets grown in India. Though these are known as coarse grains, these have high nutritional value. These are grown onClose Menu Book Free Counselling. My Courses. IAS Foundation.
The growing season is that portion of the year in which local conditions (i.e. rainfall, temperature, daylight) permit normal plant growth.
This lists the logos of programs or partners of NG Education which have provided or contributed the content on this page. Content Created by. Engage students in learning about climate and crop growth. Tell students that plants need water and sunlight to grow.
Esther M. Wesonga, Joanes O. Climate-resilient horticulture for sustainable county development in Kenya. It focuses on the aquaculture, dairy and horticulture sectors. Through evidence generation and stakeholder dialogue, 3R seeks to contribute to an understanding of effective conditions for sustainable inclusive trade for transforming agri-food sectors to be resilient, robust and reliable. N2 - Climate change presents one of the greatest challenges to the productivity and sustainable growth of the agricultural sector in Kenya due to extreme events such as droughts and floods as well as changes in temperature.
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Jump to navigation Skip to Content. Climate change will affect horticultural production in Western Australia WA in a number of ways, and the effects will depend on location, soil type, crop type and management. Reduced rainfall and increased temperatures in the south-west will increase risk for horticultural enterprises, particularly in areas at the margins of enterprise suitability. The Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development provides this information to support farm business managers and industry managers in their response to a changing climate in Western Australia. Increased temperatures will make matching crop type to climatic areas increasingly important, particularly for long-lived perennial crops and those requiring a high degree of chilling. Back to top. A drier climate will reduce the availability of water and increase cost of water for horticulture.
Light is an essential factor in maintaining plants. The rate of growth and length of time a plant remains active is dependent on the amount of light it receives. When determining the effect of light on plant growth there are three areas to consider: intensity, duration and quality.