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Enhance your purchase. The book carries 17 s dealing with space saving, maximizing the efficiency of fertigation, mulching, integrated pest, disease and nutrient management IPDNM and engineering aspects of structures. Net houses, poly houses, rain shelters, poly tunnels, uses of plastics in horticulture and cold chains for storage and marketing are elaborated. Hydroponics and aeroponics are discussed. Previous page. New India Publishing Agency.
WATCH RELATED VIDEO: PROTECTED CULTIVATION ( संरक्षित खेती ) - : By Dr . Madan Lal in HindiContent:
- Protected Cultivation of Horticultural Crops
- HORTICULTURE AND PLANTATION CROPS
- PROTECTED CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES IN INDIA: PROBLEMS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS
- Protected Cultivation of Vegetables, Flowers, and Fruits
- Protected Cultivation of Horticulture Crops
- Protected Cultivation of Vegetables–Present Status and Future Prospects in India
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Vegetable Farming. Livestock Farming. Protected cultivation is a process of growing plants in a controlled environment. This means that the temperature, humidity, light, and other factors can be regulated as per the requirement of the crop.
Then, this assists in healthier and larger produce. There are several types of protected cultivation practices.
Some of the used practices are forced ventilated greenhouse , naturally ventilated Polyhouse, insect-proof net house, shade net house, plastic tunnel, and mulching , raised beds, trellising, and drip irrigation.
These practices can be used independently or in combination, to provide a favorable environment to save plants from the harsh climate and extend the duration of crop cultivation or off-season crop production. Adoption of drip irrigation system under raised beds covered with mulch films not only eradicates weeds but also maintains moisture in the soil for a prolonged period by minimizing evaporation losses.
It is defined as cropping techniques wherein the microclimate surrounding the plant body is controlled partially or fully, as per the requirement of the plant species.
The various types of protective cultivation practices have been adopting based upon the prevailing climatic condition. Among them, Greenhouse or Polyhouse is extremely useful for Round-the-year vegetable cultivation in temperate conditions. Protected cultivation is also known as controlled environment agriculture CEA is highly productive, conservative of water and land, and also protective of the environment.
Protected cultivation was found to be better than open cultivation in terms of total crop production. The cladding material must be transparent enough to provide required photosynthetically active radiation PAR , entrap enough heat during cold weather, and protect the plants from outside conditions.
Problems in protected cultivation are Low price of the product and lack of adequate market also the other problems with vegetable production. Inadequate government support in term of training and financial support to farmers in certain areas make it difficult in protected cultivation. At present in India, the small and medium farmers have started flower and vegetable cultivation under different kinds of modular protected structures depending upon their investment capacity and availability of the market in their area.
Among all the protected cultivation practices , greenhouse farming cultivation provides maximum benefits. The open-field production of vegetable encounters with many production constraints such as heavy rain, thunderstorms, excessive solar radiation, temperatures and humidity levels above plant growth optima, high insect pest infestation pressure, and fungal diseases. The environment is the most determinate factor in horticultural crop and protected cultivation is being used to control the effect of environmental effect.
It is a sustainable approach toward vegetable production under adverse climate. Besides, from protection to adverse climatic conditions, the vegetable under protected cultivation yields high-quality vegetables in terms of shape, size, and colors. The microclimate can be changed inside the poly house and certain insects need UV light their vision purpose, the UV opaque covering material for poly house helps to restrict the insect to enter the house.
Thus, there is minimum use of an insecticide. The production of vegetables is higher than the open field condition due to congenital inside microclimate and provided a better price.
Protected cultivation comprises different devices and technologies such as windbreaks, and irrigation soil mulches, etc, and the structures which are a greenhouse, tunnel, row covers made the production throughout the year by modifying the natural environment. It will further prolong the harvest period, increase crop yield, quality improvement, and keep the availability of commodities frequently.
Protected cultivation enables cultivators to produce several folds of a good quality product which is difficult in normal conditions due to climatic and constraints. If the recommended and needful package of practices is adopted skillfully with exactness, any crop can be grown in any season, at any place using protected cultivation.
It enables to control climate temperature, humidity, wind, and light intensity, etc , atmospheric gas composition mainly CO2 concentration , fertilization, watering, pest and diseases, etc which results in better plant growth, better reproduction, minimized harmful effects of different factors such as climate and agronomy and higher production with a better quality of produce.
In case if you miss this: Organic Brinjal Farming. Selection of site — The selection of sites for taking up protected cultivation is a critical step and this has to be done with utmost care.
Places having high rainfall and humidity are not suitable for Protected cultivation since this encourages many foliar diseases. Also, the areas with high wind velocity are not suitable because they are likely to damage the structure and the polyethylene sheet frequently, thereby enhancing the maintenance cost of the structure.
Avoid the location or area where heavy rains accompanied by gusty winds are prevalent to avoid damage to the protected cultivation. Greenhouse structures — The greenhouse structure is designed depending on the prevailing local climatic conditions. A good number of different types of structures are built for protected farming.
Though, cost-effective poly house and net house structures are most commonly used to grow capsicum in our country. Net house Shade net house — The growing of vegetables in the net house is the cost-effective method. It is due to the easy availability of the granite pillars, which can give good strength to the structure and highly durable. Net houses are constructed using granite stone pillars of about 12 feet height, 8 inch X 4-inch thickness.
These pillars are located at 2 feet depth inside the soil with concrete cement grouting. The uneven and sharp edge of stone pillars on the top has to be covered with smooth materials such as rubber tubes to avoid tearing of net. A Galvanized GI wire grid is provided on the top of the granite pillar to support the shade net. This additional shade net is used during hot summer middays Feb-June , sparingly during the winter season and whenever the sunlight is more betweenConstruction of net house costs about Rs.
Polyhouse — This structure gives better protection compared to the net house due to total avoidance of rainwater entry into Polyhouse and then leaf diseases can be easily controlled. Yield is normally 15 to 20 percent more in Polyhouse compared to a net house.
Galvanized pipes are used to construct a poly house and in some cases, farmers use wooden or stone pillars that require a less initial investment. Transparent UV stabilized polyethylene film; micron thickness is about 4 used for covering the poly house roof.
It is provided with retractable or movable shade nets, at 11 feet height just below the structures from ground level. The sides of the Polyhouse structure are covered with micron thick polyethylene film to a height of 3 feet from the ground level. The remaining height of the sidewall is covered with a micron white-colored insect-proof net from all the four sides. Construction of poly house costs about Rs. Net house and Polyhouse are provided with an antechamber with two doors constructed at opposite directions where entry or exit to the poly house or net-house.
Care must be taken not to open both the doors simultaneously to avoid the entry of pests into the protected structures. A small concrete trough of about 2-meter length, 1-meter breadth, and 2-inch depth should be prepared between the two doors of antechamber for facilitating washing legs in the disinfectant solution Potassium permanganate to prevent any contamination inside the Polyhouse or net-house.
The major crops grown under protected cultivation include floriculture crops like rose , gerbera , carnation , anthurium, Lilium, orchids, and chrysanthemum , etc.
A high value, short duration and small size vegetable crops are being most suitable crops under protected cultivation. In India, particularly in the hill the sweet pepper , tomato, and cucumber are being raised.
However, leafy vegetables are suitable for protected cultivation. Cabbage, cauliflower , tomato, brinjal , capsicum, beans , pea, and coriander can be successfully grown under protected cultivation conditions at a high altitudinal region.
In this system, plants are grown in natural soil under protected cultivation. It has some demerits such as disease and insect incidence in soil. Flood irrigation water causes a high water table which reduces aeration, thereby plant root growth. The soilless cultivation has increased significantly due to the use of methyl bromide as a soil disinfectant between crop cycles. New types of substrates are increasing in the same way to increase crop yield and quality for the plants grown in the soil.
Several types of substrates are used as soilless media and it protects the crops from different soil infections such as coconut fiber, perlite, vermiculite, rock wool, peanut hulls, rice hulls, and coco peat, etc.
In hydroponic system plants are grown in nutrient and water solution without soil. Terrestrial can be grown with their roots in the mineral solution only or an intermedium, such as perlite or gravel.
Plants are grown in troughs, tubes, and other types of chambers, and roots are hung in air sprayed with nutrient mist.
So, it easily absorbs nutrients and oxygen. This method has less chance of root diseases. The several crops can be grown in a wide range of temperature, but for better plant growth and development individual crops requires a specific range of temperature. It is mainly possible under protected cultivation. Water is the most important factor that affects the production system of crops. It is not possible to grow the crop during the high rainfall, as vegetables are succulent and tender, high rainfall will drop the quality of crops.
To reduce the consequences of high rainfall and high wind, protected cultivation is the most suitable technique. It will produce a high quality of plants throughout the year. The protected cultivation in India is facing a lot of constraints such as the loss of productive soils through urban intrusion, loss of low-cost labor, maintenance of temperature, humidity, light management, fertigation, irrigation system, lack of proper knowledge of harvesting , continuous electricity, and water supply, unavailability of market demand varieties, low risk-taking availability, lack of motivation, lack of suitable price policy and lack of created facilities.
Then, these challenges affect the progress of protected cultivation in India. In case if you are interested in this: Profit in Red Chilli Production. Save my name and email in this browser for the next time I comment. Fruit Farming. Sign in. Forgot your password? Get help. Password recovery. Protected Cultivation of Vegetables, Flowers, and Fruits. Introduction to protected cultivation of vegetables and other produce Protected cultivation is a process of growing plants in a controlled environment.
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Protected cultivation of vegetables, fruits and commercial crops offers immense potentials to address the challenges of increasing production, productivity and sustainability of farming. The book covers various aspects of adoption of Protected Cultivation in India and Its socio-economic impact on farm households. The history of protected cultivation, its growth over the years in the context of various government programmes is critically documented. The adoption of protected cultivation and its impact on farm household in terms of employment generated, increase in production and productivity and farm incomes are discussed in details. The book is written keeping in view the diverse information needs of various stakeholders associated with the subject.
Protected Cultivation Of Horticultural Crops by Dk Singh,Kv Peter. our price ,Save Rs New India Publishing Agency (Publisher). ( Customers).
India is facing various challenges in fruit cultivation viz. Besides this, the demand for quality fruit is also on the rise as people are now more aware of a nutritious and healthy diet. The quality with higher production is difficult with the traditional system of cultivation and requires a more scientific approach in cultivation. Greenhouse cultivation technology can enhance quality and quantity both. This technology is required to convert some portion of the present 6. The purpose of greenhouse cultivation is to grow crops by altering the micro-environment surrounding the crop so that the plant performs maximum to its genetic potential. It also increases the yield, improves the quality and stability of production and makes commodities available when there is no outdoor production. China is the world leader in greenhouse fruit production with the largest area under this technology. In India, greenhouse fruit cultivation is in its infancy as the only strawberry is commercially being grown under greenhouses.
Protected cultivation is now a common name in the farming sector as it made farming easy and controllable.
Vegetable Farming. Livestock Farming. Protected cultivation is a process of growing plants in a controlled environment. This means that the temperature, humidity, light, and other factors can be regulated as per the requirement of the crop. Then, this assists in healthier and larger produce.
Coconut is the major growing cropgrown in ha, followed by Mango Ha , Coffee Ha , Banana Ha , Moringa Ha , Tamarind Ha and Potato Ha are the major Horticulture crops that are cultivated in the district. The blocks namely Natham, Sanarpatty and Kodaikanalare major fruits growing regions and Kodaikanal, Oddanchatram and Thoppampattiare major vegetable growing regions. To increase the production, productivity and income of farmers, various schemes are being implemented through Department of Horticulture and Plantation crops. To impart hi-tech production techniques among farmers various schemes like poly house construction, shade net house, mulching, distribution of seedlings of high yielding varieties of fruit crops, vegetables and plantation crops are being done. Crop incentive programme-The farmers can avail an incentive of Rs 2, per hectare to cultivate vegetables during off-season.
Hence, a breakthrough in production technology of high value crops such as, vegetables that integrates market driven safe foods/ products driven.
Adetula OA. Genetic diversity of Capsicum using random amplified polymorphic DNAs. African Journal of Biotechnology 5:Altunlu H and Gul A.
Nagapattinam district is coming under Cauvery delta region and the total area under cultivation is ha. In that, Horticultural crops have been cultivated in about ha and the prominent crops under cultivation are Cashew, Mango, Banana, Guava, Tapioca, Chillies, Brinjal and other vegetables. To increase the production, productivity and income of farmers, various schemes are being implemented through Department of Horticulture and Plantation crops. To impart hi-tech production techniques among farmers various schemes like poly house construction, distribution of seedlings of high yielding varieties of fruit crops, vegetables and plantation crops are being done. The strategies of Horticulture Department are to encourage the use of hybrid seeds and quality planting material in area expansion of horticulture crops, hi-tech cultivation, high density planting, promotion of cultivating high value horticulture crops under protected cultivation and use of micro irrigation for enhancing the production. The hybrid vegetable protray seedlings will be raised in State Horticulture Farm and distributed to farmers at subsidized cost to increase the area and production of vegetable cultivation.
Growing of vegetable crops under protected conditions are relatively, an innovative technology and most popular among farmers throughout the country. In last few decades protected cultivation has shown potential enhancement in horticultural production.
Kurnool District is having massive potential for Horticulture with wide range of fruit species, vegetables, spices and flowers growing in an area of 1,17, Ha. The main vegetables grown are Tomato, Brinjal, Bhendi, and beans in addition to spices like Onion, Chillies. Before launching the programme the area under Fruit crops is 8, Ha, after launching the programme, the area under fruit Crops has been increased to Ha duly improving the production and productivity. Print Share Facebook Twitter. Productivity Enhancement — Rejuvenation of Senile gardens: Old and low-productive Mango plantations are rejuvenated to enhance production and productivity.
EthelNgullie, Asst. Horticulture Specialist, Mr. Tokato, Sr. Farm Manager.