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Sekhar C. The word Moringa is Magic to Many of the consumers both in India and many other countries. Because of the nutritional and medicinal importance of Moringa, the demand for Moringa and its value added products are increasing which in turn permits enhanced area under Moringa from the supply side and hence a study has been taken up in the Western and Southern Part of Tamil Nadu to analyze the reasons for taking up Moringa plantations in a large scale and their economics.
This paper has identified few factors which are influencing the cultivation of Moringa and the factors governing the profitability of Moringa. The Economic appraisal tools have revealed that the Moringa cultivation is profitable and hence the detailed analysis of costs and their return is presented and discussed. Besides, the nutritional and medicinal importance coupled with the steps involved in post harvest processing are also discussed for the benefit of Processors.
Moringa Moringa oleifera Lam. In eastern and southern regions of India, Moringa is widely used as vegetable and grown commercially for its edible pods and leaves. Almost all the parts of this plant: root, bark, gum, leaf, fruit pods , flowers, seed and seed oil have been used for various ailments in the indigenous medicine of South Asia, including the treatment of inflammation and infectious diseases along with cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, haematological and hepatorenal disorders.
Its popularity is increasing steadily because of its nutritional, medicinal value and for its sweetness in curry and slurry preparation along with red gram dhal.
India is the prime producer of Moringa Drumstick with an annual production of 2. Among the different states, Andhra Pradesh leads in both area and production 15, ha followed by Karnataka 10, ha and Tamil Nadu ha.
In other states, it occupies an area of 4, ha. Tamil Nadu is the pioneering state as it has varied genotypes from diversified geographical areas, as well as introductions from Sri Lanka. Principally perennial types have been known for cultivation for a very long time. However, perennial types are beset with many production constraints, such as a relatively long pre-fruit bearing period, non availability of planting materials stem cuttings , requirement of a greater number of rainy days in regions where water is scarce, and vulnerability to pests and diseases.
Trees are maintained up to 15 years without pruning. Another perennial type cultivated in and around Usilampatti, Aundipatti areas is Valayapatti Moringa. The pods are around 65 cm long, and weigh about g.
Yield is reported to be pods per tree. An ecotype of Jaffna Moringa, it bears pods as long as cm. It is also cultivated in Tamil Nadu. Another ecotype of Jaffna Moringa, it flowers and fruits throughout the year, yielding a heavy crop. The tips of the pods are red. The tree is medium sized and bearing long pods. A Yazhphanam type Moringa introduced from Sri Lanka.
Its fruits are cm long with soft flesh and good taste. It is cultivated commercially in Tirunelveli and Tuticorin districts of Tamil Nadu. A wild form of Moringa, M. It is cultivated predominantly in the betel vine gardens of Tiruchirapalli district of Tamil Nadu. The pods are shorter cm long and are thick fleshed.
The pods and leaves are very tasty. Trees are short statured with smaller leaves. It is grown in home gardens of Tirunelveli and Kanyakumari districts. The germplasm collection block contains perennial and annual Moringa accessions with heavy fruit-bearing, cluster bearing, drought tolerance, dwarfing stature and pest and disease resistance. Scientists at the Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Periyakulam have succeeded in developing seed-propagated Moringa types, which has revolutionized the Moringa cultivation in the country.
By judicious breeding programs, including introduction of elite mother plants, evaluation, selection and hybridization, The Horticultural College and Research Institute of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University has released two improved annual Moringa varieties PKM-1, PKM-2 within a span of 10 years, for commercial cultivation. These varieties have developed up well in many traditional and non-traditional areas Sadashathi ,It is a pure line selection developed by continuous selfing for six generations, collected from Eppothumvendran village of Thoothukkudi region.
In each generation, only long pods and desirable characters are selected and advanced. It was released in the yearThe fruits are fleshy and tasty. It comes to flowering within months of sowing and comes to harvest in months. The peak harvest is during March-August. The plants grow to a height of m in a year and produce primary branches. The pinnate leaves are about 40 cm long with small leaflets which are dark green on the upper side and pale green on the lower side. The pods are 75 cm long with a girth of 6.
The pods attain edible maturity 65 days after flowering. The leaves can be used as a nutritive green. Ratoon crops can be maintained for years. After every year the trees have to be cut back to 1 m from ground level. This variety can be grown as inter crop in coconut orchards during the early period.
Chilli, onion and groundnut can be grown as intercrop in Moringa fields V. Ponnusamy ,It can be propagated through seeds. The tree comes to bearing six months after planting and is suitable for growing in different cropping systems.
The pods are cm long, with a girth of 8. The pods are less seeded and delicious. Ratoon crop can also be taken up for three years. It is suitable for growing in Tamil Nadu and is adapted to most soil types varying from sandy loam to clay loam with good drainage V. In Moolanur block, Moringa is established as an intercrop on field scale and their allies were cropped with vegetables and Sorghum.
This system evolved as Moringa based cropping systems offered some protection to alley crops from drying winds during summer and Moringa provided some additional income. With the migration of people from south to north India, and elsewhere in the world, the demand for Moringa picked up and hence area under Moringa is also found to be increasing.
Farmers found that growing Moringa crops during summer season was remunerative. Thus, Moringa gained a foothold as a summer vegetable. Its unique flavor and aroma became very popular. For South Indian any meal without Moringa and pulses is considered incomplete.
The demand for the Moringa pod also increased due to increased urban settlements and migration of people to urban colonies. Any Production activity needs clarity on economics. On realizing the economic benefits that accrue from the production process, either the entrepreneur or the producer of any activity will give his consent in establishing the production unit.
In Horticulture, Moringa production is one of the principal activity that is gaining importance across the world and many farmers have resorted their willingness to establish Moringa orchards in their farm lands for maximizing their profits. Many of the small and marginal farmers are unaware on the economics but they continue their activity of producing the crops.
Whatever the output that comes to them, they get satisfied. But the enterprising farmers are showing much interest in learning the economics out of Moringa and hence a study has been initiated in the western and southern zone of Tamil Nadu to quantify the exact income generation possibilities out of Moringa.
Among the 31 Districts of Tamil Nadu, only 6 districts have the notable area under Moringa cultivation. Among the 6 Districts, the traditional Moringa growers were belonged to Tiruppur and Thoothukkudi Districts.
In these two districts, area expansion under Moringa is dismal while other districts take a lead in cultivation of Moringa and hence a study has been initiated to assess the reasons for the same and hence the Tiruppur and Thoothukkudi Districts were purposively chosen in the First Stage. Table 1 revealed that the total area under Moringa is distributed only in two taluks to the -tune of 98 per cent in Thoothukkudi District.
Among the two taluks, Sathankulam found to have 73 per cent of the total area under Moringa. In the Third Stage, the villages where the highest area under Moringa available were enlisted after getting the list of farmers from the Department of Horticulture and Plantation Crops of Government of Tamil Nadu and in each village 10 sample farmers were randomly selected following a Three Stage Random Sampling Technique for the Study.
Table 2 revealed that the samples selected in respect of Moringa are accounted for 50 samples from Thoothukkudi District and another 50 samples were drawn from Tiruppur District. Put together, One hundred samples were selected for the study from these two districts.
From the sample farmers, the details of land use, crop management for its production and productivity, Post harvest processing methods, Cost of production of Moringa and the constraints involved are assessed using the structured and pretested questionnaire exclusively designed for the purpose and the same were analyzed and documented in this study by adopting a descriptive statistics like mean and percentage analysis.
Table 2 Details of Samples Selected for the Study. The results of the study were presented here for better understanding of the stakeholders under the following heads. They are. The increasing area under Moringa necessarily called for analyzing the influencing factors for establishing the Moringa Plantations in their farm holdings.
Few of the factors may be positively influencing and some are negatively influencing. In this respect, these are analyzed and the results are presented in Table 3. Table 3 Factors Influencing Moringa Cultivation.
Table 3 revealed that the factors are positively influencing to the farmers in the study area. The influencing factors are delineated as follows. Among these factors, the Thoothukkudi farmers were of the opinion that the Sustainable Income generation possibilities are available with Moringa and hence they prefer the crop maximum followed by Higher return from Moringa.
These two are the most influencing factors to the farmers of Thoothukkudi District. Whereas, Higher returns from Moringa followed by Sustainable income generation are the factors dearer to the people of Tiruppur District.
Though these factors are very closely related to income realization, the farmers are much interested in Moringa plantations owing to heavy market demand that exists in the National and International Markets.
How much income over the costs are being generated by the farmers is important in this context and hence the details on economic incentives are analyzed and details are discussed elsewhere.
A developing country like India needs not only food on quantitative terms but also the food must be qualitative and should possess the nutrient requirements of the body which is not available to many in the rural and urban settings.
Moringa is one of the best alternative which could serve the nutritious food.
Having good and easy access to inputs, know-how and market, Farmers have wide scope for horticultural produce production. Given that area and production of fruits and vegetables have been increasing steadily, Coimbatore has the potential to increase its contribution towards the economy by way of exports. As returns from Horticulture per unit of land are higher in comparison to Agriculture, Know-How through University, Department and Institution, Market through Export and Logistics, There is Voluntary shift in the cropping pattern towards horticulture Based Farming. The Horticulture is climate resilient, therefore assures higher income to farmers. Due to changing Socio economic profile and increasing middle class coupled with higher per capita income this sector has more potential as food habits are changing and people are becoming more health conscious. Major Contribution of Coimbatore in Tamil Nadu.
student for the highest mark in fruit crops, TNAU Coimbatore 06, Training Farmers on Production, Post Harvest Management and Processing.
Fundamentals of Horticulture. Scope and importance, classification of horticultural crops and nutritive value, area and production, exports and imports, fruit and vegetable zones of India and of different states, nursery techniques and their management, soil and climate, vegetable gardens, nutrition and kitchen garden and other types of gardens — principles, planning and layout, management of orchards, planting systems and planting densities. Production and practices for fruit, vegetable and floriculture crops. Principles objectives, types and methods of pruning and training of fruit crops, types and use of growth regulators in horticulture, water management— irrigation methods, merits and demerits, weed management, fertility management in horticultural crops-manures and fertilizers, different methods of application, cropping systems, intercropping, multi-tier cropping, mulching— objectives, types merits and demerits, Classification of bearing habits of fruit trees, factors influencing the fruitfulness and unfruitfulness. Type of fruits- morphology.
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Sekhar C. The word Moringa is Magic to Many of the consumers both in India and many other countries. Because of the nutritional and medicinal importance of Moringa, the demand for Moringa and its value added products are increasing which in turn permits enhanced area under Moringa from the supply side and hence a study has been taken up in the Western and Southern Part of Tamil Nadu to analyze the reasons for taking up Moringa plantations in a large scale and their economics. This paper has identified few factors which are influencing the cultivation of Moringa and the factors governing the profitability of Moringa. The Economic appraisal tools have revealed that the Moringa cultivation is profitable and hence the detailed analysis of costs and their return is presented and discussed. Besides, the nutritional and medicinal importance coupled with the steps involved in post harvest processing are also discussed for the benefit of Processors.
Sc Horticulture detailed course syllabus as study material??? Quick Sam. Sc Horticulture detailed course syllabus as study material, here I am giving: B. Practical Features of orchard - planning and layout of orchard — Tools and implements — layout of nutrition garden — preparation of nursery beds — sowing vegetable seeds — digging pits for fruit plants and planting - layout of irrigation systems - preparation and application of fertilizer mixtures — preparation and application of growth regulators — identification and management of nutritional disorder in fruits and vegetables - assessment of bearing habits — practice in training and pruning of fruit crops— structures for protected cultivation — study of maturity standards — harvesting, grading, packing and storage of horticultural crops. Lecture schedule 1. Scope, importance and divisions of Horticulture 2.
In certain parts of Ramnad and Chengalpet rice is grown as dryland crop. Paddy Breeding Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University is one among them.
Health food and supplements are other rapidly rising segments of this industry. India is the 2nd largest vegetable and 3rd largest fruit producer in the world. India is poised to register the highest increase in rice production in the world over the next 10 years. India ranks second only to Japan in inland fish production.
Vice Chancellor. Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. World has witnessed rapid growth in the area and production of Horticultural crops over agricultural crops during the past decade. Horticultural output surpassed the food grains six years ago and since then growing interest in horticulture has been catalyzed by changing food consumption patterns, awareness on health benefits and growing income. Horticulture output is widening its margin against food crops with a profound impact on farm income, water utilization, land use, employment and entrepreneurship. Recent advances in micro irrigation, high density planting, rootstock breeding, canopy management, post harvest processing and value addition have empowered horticulture.
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